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104 7 fm palmas

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66. Bellizzi V, Di Iorio BR, De Nicola L, Minutolo R, Zamboli P, Trucillo P, et al. Very low protein diet supplemented with ketoanalogs improves blood pressure control in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. (2007). 71:245–51. doi: 10.1038/


Due to the unique role of the kidney in the metabolism of nutrients, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) lose the ability to excrete solutes and maintain homeostasis. Nutrient intake modifications and monitoring of nutritional status in this population becomes critical, since it can affect important health outcomes, including progression to kidney failure, quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. Although there are multiple hemodynamic and metabolic factors involved in the progression and prognosis of CKD, nutritional interventions are a central component of the care of patients with non-dialysis CKD (ND-CKD) and of the prevention of overweight and possible protein energy-wasting. Here, we review the reno-protective effects of diet in adults with ND-CKD stages 3–5, including transplant patients.

2. KDIGO clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int Suppl. (2013) 3:1–150. doi: 10.1038/kisup.2012.73

108. Schweda F. Salt feedback on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Pflugers Arch. (2015) 467:565–76. doi: 10.1007/s00424-014-1668-y

Key words: photosynthesis, transpiration, water deficit, Eastern Plains.

Accepted: 30 November 2016

The maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm) showed no sig nificant differences in any of the comparisons (Fig. 3). The average value was 0.81±0.02, and no trends related to the field or the seasons were found. In the field with irrigation, the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of the palms showed no significant variations and was slightly higher in both materials during the wet season. However, the NPQ differences among seasons were found in the field with no irrigation for both materials and reached the highest values during the wet season. The photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (0PII) and the electron transfer rate (ETR) responded similarly. These variables are closely related and no significant differences were found among seasons for E. guineensis in the field with irrigation. However, the values for the wet season were lower than those found in the dry season.

Lascano, R. 1998. Bases tecnológicas para el riego en palma de aceite. Rev. Palmas 19, 229-241.

Monroy, J.J. 2010. Sistema de riego por superficie mediante el metodo de tuberia de ventanas en palma de aceite (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Rev. Palmas 31, 36-44.