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cannabidiol anti inflammatory

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In conclusion, this study has provided evidence that CBD and CBG formulated appropriately exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. Our observations suggest that these non-psychoactive cannabinoids may have beneficial effects in treating diseases characterised by airway inflammation.

The second purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoids formulated in two different formulations. The lipophilic nature of cannabinoids is a significant challenge for developing an effective formulation and bioavailability for optimal therapeutic effect [25]. Due to their lipophilicity, cannabinoids present negligible aqueous solubility. Additionally, they are vulnerable to degradation by auto-oxidation, light and temperature [26]. The first formulation tested in this study was composed of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). They are lipids with a carbon chain length of 6–12 carbon atoms, making MCTs easier to absorb and metabolise than long-chain fatty acids (LCTs). Due to these characteristics, MCTs have been suggested as a drug vehicle for lipophilic drugs [27]. Our second formulation was a micellar solution composed of ethanol (EtOH), Cremophor® EL (polyoxyl 35 castor oil, CrEL) and sodium chloride 0.9% in purified water (saline). EtOH, a short-chain alcohol, is widely used as a solvent and co-surfactant for lipophilic drugs. CrEL is a non-ionic hydrophilic surfactant used to emulsify and solubilise lipophilic molecules by forming micelles and entrapping the lipophilic molecules within them in aqueous solutions. CrEL can also increase drug absorption by enhancing the dissolution rate of the drug by disrupting the lipid bilayer of cells [28]. Lastly, saline is a water-based solvent included in the formulation to obtain a final isotonic mixture.


COPD is a chronic respiratory disease with considerable unmet medical needs [18]. In 2017, 3.91 million people died from COPD worldwide, and because of its growing prevalence and mortality rate, COPD is expected to become the world's third most common cause of death by 2030 [19]. COPD includes a group of chronic lung conditions characterised by poorly reversible airflow obstruction, abnormal and chronic non-allergic inflammation of the airway, mucous plugging and airway remodelling [20]. This chronic and pathological airway response can result in excessive cough and mucus production (chronic bronchitis), alveolar destruction (emphysema) and/or lesions in the smaller conducting airways (bronchiolitis) [21]. The aberrant inflammatory response in the lungs, particularly in the small airways, is the outcome of the innate and adaptive immune responses to long-term exposure to toxic particles and gases, especially cigarette smoke and other oxidant pollution [20]. Other sources may trigger the development of the disease, such as alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency and telomerase polymorphisms [22]. This response is associated with an increased number of activated macrophages, neutrophils (both part of the innate immune response), T lymphocytes (Tc1, Th1 and ILC3 cells; adaptative immunity) [18] and in some cases, eosinophils [23]. These activated inflammatory cells release inflammatory mediators such as interleukin 8 (IL-8), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), which orchestrate the pathological structural and airway changes in COPD. These changes include tissue remodelling, chronic airways inflammation, oxidative stress, proteinase imbalances and accelerated ageing [24]. As the disease progresses, the degree of inflammation driven primarily by neutrophils also evolves [18].

Exposure of guinea pigs to LPS induced a 97 ± 7% and 98 ± 3% increase in neutrophils found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) at 4 h and 24 h, respectively. Administration of CBD and CBG formulated with MCT oil did not show any significant effects on the LPS-induced neutrophilia measured in the BAL fluid when compared with the vehicle-treated groups. Conversely, the administration of either cannabinoid formulated with CrEL induced a significant attenuation of the LPS induced recruitment of neutrophils into the lung following both intraperitoneal (IP) and oral (PO) administration routes, with a 55–65% and 50–55% decrease in neutrophil cell recruitment with the highest doses of CBD and CBG respectively. A combination of CBD and CBG (CBD:CBG = 1:1) formulated in CrEL and administered orally was also tested to determine possible interactions between the cannabinoids. However, a mixture of CBD and CBG did not show a significant change in LPS-induced neutrophilia. Surfactants, such as CrEL, improves the dissolution of lipophilic drugs in an aqueous medium by forming micelles and entrapping the drug molecules within them, consequently increasing the drug dissolution rate. Additionally, surfactants increase permeability and absorption by disrupting the structural organisation of the cellular lipid bilayer.

Cannabis, often referred to as marijuana, is a botanical product derived from the Cannabis Sativa L. plant, a dioicous species of the Cannabaceae and broadly distributed all over the world [1]. The use of the cannabis plant for its medicinal properties, source of textile fibre (hemp), and psychoactive/medical effects, stretches back approximately 5000 years. The term ‘cannabinoid’ or ‘phytocannabinoid’ (plant-based cannabinoids) refers to a group of lipophilic and pharmacologically active, oxygenated C21-22 aromatic hydrocarbon compounds found in the leaves and flowering plants of the Cannabis Sativa plant [2]. Since the isolation of Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC) [3], more than 144 unique cannabinoid compounds, 100 terpenes, and 20 phenolic compounds synthesised by the cannabis plant have been identified [4]. In addition to the plant-derived cannabinoids, many structurally and biologically associated compounds have been created, which are known as synthetic cannabinoids [5].