Low tetrahydrocannabinol Cannabis sativa products, also known as hemp products, have become widely available and their use in veterinary patients has become increasingly popular. Despite prevalence of use, the veterinary literature is lacking and evidence-based resource for cannabinoid efficacy. The most prevailing cannabinoid found in hemp is cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and becomes cannabidiol (CBD) during heat extraction; CBD has been studied for its direct anti-neoplastic properties alone and in combination with standard cancer therapies, yielding encouraging results. The objectives of our study were to explore the anti-proliferative and cell death response associated with in vitro treatment of canine cancer cell lines with CBD alone and combination with common chemotherapeutics, as well as investigation into major proliferative pathways (eg, p38, JNK, AKT and mTOR) potentially involved in the response to treatment with CBD. CBD significantly reduced canine cancer cell proliferation far better than CBDA across five canine neoplastic cell lines when treated with concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 10 μg/mL. Combinatory treatment with CBD and vincristine reduced cell proliferation in a synergistic or additive manner at anti-proliferative concentrations with less clear results using doxorubicin in combination with CBD. The cellular signalling effects of CBD treatment, showed that autophagy supervened induction of apoptosis and may be related to prompt induction of ERK and JNK phosphorylation prior to autophagy. In conclusion, CBD is effective at hindering cell proliferation and induction of autophagy and apoptosis rapidly across neoplastic cell lines and further clinical trials are needed to understand its efficacy and interactions with traditional chemotherapy.
Keywords: LC3; SQSTM1/p62; annexin; cannabinoid; caspase; chemotherapy; synergy.
Despite growing popularity, CBD still suffers fromsomething of an identity crisis, with some people still people failingto make the distinction between CBD and marijuana. While it’s true thatCBD and marijuana do come from the same plant, the chemical makeup ofthe Cannabis Sativa plant means that the plants harvested for CBD andmarijuana have different properties. To produce CBD oil, a higher CBD concentration of CBD and minimal levels of THC are required, leading producers to favor the hemp plant.
Like for humans, CBD and hemp oilshavelong been used in traditional communities to treat pain indogs resulting from a range of illnesses including cancer andmuscular injuries.
CBD Oil Vs. Cannabis Oil
Regardless,moretraditional cancer treatment methods for dogs can beprohibitively expensive, costing anywhere from $3,000 to $10,000 and caninvolve many of the same negative side effects as in humans, such asvomiting, and loss of appetite.
CBD use for dogs,likehumans, poses minimal risk. The biggest risks that do exist stem fromthe lack of regulation surrounding CBD products. Due to the lackof regulation, there are some products on the market that havenot undergone adequate testing and not only contain negligible quantitiesof CBD, also contain higher levels of THC than you may expect. Useof these products may lead to THC toxicity in your dog. Essentially,they may get “high”.
Unlike Tetrahydrocannabinol(THC), CBD is not psychoactive, meaning it doesn’t result in thedistinctive ‘high’ that most people associate with marijuana. For thisreason, as well as its ability to provide natural relief from a wholehost of pain and anxiety disorders, CBD is growing in popularity aroundthe world.