The hormonal system (endocrin) consists of various glands that produce hormones such as thyroid, pituitary gland, pancreas, pineal glands, etc. Hormones produced by these glands are particularly strong chemical substances that significantly affect the body, because The endocrine system is an important adaptation mechanism to the changing conditions of the external and internal environment.
Graves’ disease – a type of hyperthyroidism caused by excessive activity of the entire thyroid gland. The cause of Graves’ disease is abnormal functioning of the body’s immune system, which is responsible for fighting all diseases. The main symptoms of the disease include:
CBD in the treatment of thyroid gland. Thyroid hormone – basic knowledge
Thyroid nodular goiter is a condition where one or more nodules are located in the thyroid structure. The resulting nodules give off the wrong amount of hormones, disturbing the chemical balance of the human body. The use of CBD may have a significant impact on improving the patient’s health in this disease. There is a high probability that cannabinoids reduce nodules formed on the thyroid.
In the case of many patients struggling with overactive thyroid using cannabidiol, the relief of many negative symptoms of this disease has been noticed. Regular use of CBD oils allows you to return to normal body weight by stopping the existing diarrhea and restoring the patient’s appetite. CBD also eliminates persistent sleep disorders related to anxiety, irritability and anxiety that accompany Graves’ disease. In addition, the CBD regulates the heart, the trembling of hands and fingers, as well as any muscular pains occurring with varying frequency and intensity in the patient.
Thyroid cancer – affects a small percentage of the population (about 5%). Every year, researchers and researchers provide ever newer, more reliable information confirming the anti-cancer effect of cannabidiol. Although the mere introduction of CBD to the treatment process of the disease, it does not guarantee a complete disposal of its effects, for many patients is a source of elimination of nagging symptoms.
Have any CBD-oil derived products been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat cancer, its symptoms, or the side effects caused by its treatment?
What’s the most important thing cancer patients should know about CBD oil?
The main difference is that hemp has far less THC than a typical marijuana plant. And unlike THC, CBD is not a psychoactive agent, so there’s less possibility that it will cause the same mental confusion, drowsiness or hallucinations that often come with THC.
Marijuana and hemp are both varieties of the cannabis sativa plant. Both contain cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) — the two most-common, known active ingredients.
What is CBD oil, and how does it differ from marijuana and hemp?
Although a correlation between cannabis smoking and lung cancer is non‐definitive, there is data that demonstrates cannabis smoke as a mucosal irritant and source of oxidative stress to respiratory epithelium. 70 There are also reports of increased incidence of fungal sinusitis; possibly due to Aspergillus contaminant of the smoked plant. 71 , 72 Although rare, allergic reactions to marijuana have also been reported. These reactions range from type I hypersensitivity (rhinoconjunctivitis) to anaphylaxis. 73 There is also evidence that marijuana users experience increased rates of periodontal disease and dental carries. 74 Data also correlates marijuana smoking with respiratory mucosa inflammation, stomatitis, uvulitis, cough, and increased sputum production. 19 , 75 Fortunately, these acute respiratory inflammatory responses to smoked marijuana tend to subside soon after cessation of smoking. 76
Unlike many other bioceutical therapies which may be used by the otolaryngology patient, marijuana poses additional challenges due it its current federal classification as a schedule I substance. As scientific evidence of its therapeutic benefit advances, it is vital that physicians are well informed in order to confidently provide sound guidance when questioned by patients. Additionally, the physician must be kept abreast of the current regulatory status in order to ensure they keep their practice within the rapidly changing legal boundaries of both state and federal legislation.
Despite the apparently similar carcinogenic profile between marijuana and tobacco smoke, current data does not clearly support marijuana smoking as a clear risk factor for lung cancer. 60 , 61 , 62 , 63 , 64 Studies assessing marijuana use and risk of head and neck cancers are also mixed and data is weakened by confounding factors (namely tobacco), low power, and exposure to recall bias due to their retrospective nature. 61 , 62 , 64 , 65 , 66 , 67 Some data shows marijuana use to be potentially protective against tongue cancers (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.29–0.75) and other oropharyngeal cancers, while concomitantly serving as an independent risk factor for human papilloma virus (HPV)–positive oral tumors. 68 , 69 Gillison et al reported the possibility that the increased risk of HPV positive cancers seen in marijuana smokers may be due to certain immunomodulatory effects of cannabis. By inducing a shift from Th1 to TH2 immune responses, cannabinoids may decrease resistance to intracellular bacterial and viral infection. Once infected, the host would also suffer from attenuation of normal physiologic clearing of viral infection. This would ultimately result in more virulent HPV infections and increased rates of HPV‐positive cancer. 68 There are no clinical studies assessing cancer risk in users via oral ingestion or vaporization.
CB1 and CB2 are membrane bound GPCRs. CB1 receptors (left) are found predominantly in the brain and in tissues of the central nervous system. It is expressed to a lesser degree in the spleen, eye, and reproductive organs. Upon activation, CB1 activates MAPK, ERK, and PI3K pathways, while inhibiting AC and decreasing cellular cAMP. CB2 receptors (right) are found in immune tissues, predominantly B cells and natural killer cells, with additional expression in T cells and neutrophils. Upon activation, CB2 activates MAPK and PI3K pathways while decreasing the generation of ROS.
Acute physiologic effects of cannabis use include tachycardia, bronchodilation, conjunctival irritation, and decreased intraocular pressure. 49 Although previous data appears to support marijuana use having a negative effect on neural development when used in young people, a recent prospective study conducted in the UK demonstrated this tendency might be negated in moderate users when other factors such as tobacco and alcohol use are accounted for. 48 , 50 , 51 , 52 There is data supporting a correlation with mental illness, including schizophrenia, and heavy use. 50 The association between marijuana use and mental illness has not been shown to be causative. Marijuana may induce earlier or stronger psychotic events in individuals with a preexisting disposition toward mental illness. 3
Unlike CB1, CB2 appears to predominate peripherally within immune regulatory tissues. CB2 expression appears to be highest in B cells and natural killer (NK) cells but is also found in T cells and polymorphonuclear (PMN, neutrophils). 44 CB2 acts to help regulate inflammatory responses. Similar to CB1, CB2 induces many of its physiologic effects through MAPK and PI‐3K signaling pathways. 45 , 46 Unlike CB1, which may promote a proinflammatory response, CB2 signaling appears to decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS). 47
Driving impairment remains a concern in patients under the influence of marijuana. In contrast to alcohol intoxication, cannabis intoxication levels and risk of driving impairment are not as predictable due to wider levels of tolerance between users. 53 Cannabis intoxication does not appear to impair drivers to the same extent as alcohol, but has been shown to function synergistically when individuals are intoxicated by both. 53 , 54 This association with increased motor vehicle accidents extends to other sources of trauma as well. Gerberich et al. found that cannabis use to increase hospital admission rates for all causes of injury. 55